A Brief Geological History
Harpur Pond Wetland complex
The extensive wetland system of about 30 acres that includes Harpur Pond is underlain
by an even layer of mostly clay sediment several feet thick. The clay prevents water
loss through the bottom and has created the poor drainage that has formed the wetland.
For such a clay layer to have formed it had to have settled out in of a body of standing
water into the which particles slowly eroded from the surrounding shale bedrock. The
process took thousands of years during the last ice age which ended about 10,000 years
ago. A glacial lake occupied the Harpur Pond valley and was first formed when the
glacier itself blocked the outward drainage. Later thick deposits of till left by
the glacier continued the dam effect. Eventually the outlet eroded downward through
the till, the lake disappeared and the wetland resulted.
About 1962 the construction of a natural gas pipeline across the wetland at about the same location as the current boardwalk created Harpur Pond (before this there was a forested wetland where the pond is) and the arrival of the beavers in the mid 1980's eventually ponded up water to almost the extent, if not the depth, of the former glacial lake. When the beavers leave, this will again revert to a forested wetland.
Evidence of the geological history can be seen at the end of Lehigh Avenue where a footbridge to Stair Park crosses Fuller Hollow Creek. Where the creek cuts down to the bedrock, deep layers of glacial till can be seen.
Fuller Hollow Creek
Before 1960, Fuller Hollow Creek, which the Nature Preserve drains into, flowed with natural twists and turns down to the Susquehanna River, approximately a mile downstream. Then the development of the Stair Park subdivision altered the natural course of the stream by straightening it in order to create more house lots adjacent to the stream. At the same time the creation of extensive non-absorbing surfaces from roofs, roads, and driveways meant that more water ran more quickly into the stream. The stream thus rose higher and more quickly in heavy rains. Since the stream had been straightened, it could no longer dissipate energy in meandering. Two things happened. The stream cut deeper and it also cut into its banks to reestablish its meanders. The latter is unacceptable as it means property loss from undercut and collapsing banks but the laws of physics are irrevocable and the stream bank cutting slowly advances in spite of the efforts of home owners to stop it. The deep cuts just below the bridge over Washington St. by the back entrance to campus show the many layers of till laid down during the last ice age. The till consists mostly of varying layers of clay and gravel.
Newing Woods and the CIW knoll
There are some interesting and important differences on campus in subsurface geology.
The flat forested land along Fuller Hollow creek east of Newing College consists of
flood plain sediments laid down on top of glacial till that is mostly gravel, which
has created a fairly well drained soil. This flatter land has usually been developed
in this area, as evidenced by the campus playing fields and athletic facilities which
have been built atop similar soils. Such well drained and fertile soils used to be
mostly farmed but now their fertility has been largely lost to development, which
is much easier here than on hilly upland sites.
Behind CIW and extending east and south is a gentle knoll that extends to the wetland on the south. This knoll is basically a mound of glacial till many feet deep. Much of the rock here was transported from many miles to the north, as it is very different than our shale bedrock
The hilly land on the southern half of the university lands is also underlain by till but this is mostly local shale that was only moved a relatively short distance. In some places (Bunn Hill Ck. ravine) there are conspicuous outcroppings where this rock is exposed at the surface.
Bunn Hill Creek Ravine
On the west side of Bunn Hill Rd. and north of Dodd Rd. is a spectacularly picturesque ravine through which Bunn Hill Creek flows. The stream has not been altered and in its upper reaches it flows over shale bedrock in a series of waterfalls that have created small plunge pools. Because most of the watershed is still forested and undeveloped, water quality is very high and the stream flow is much more even than the heavily urbanized Fuller Hollow Ck. A visit to both streams in a heavy rainstorm will provide abundant evidence of the value of forested watersheds in preventing flooding.
Information courtesy of John Rayburn of the Binghamton University Geology department, An Integrated Hydrogeologic and Geophysical Study of the Binghamton University Nature Preserve, a masters thesis by Daniel Patrick Michaud, and Dr. Richard Andrus